Formatting citations and generating a bibliography

The three main functions of Biblioscape references module are to collect references, manage them, and publish. Formatting citations and generating a bibliography are the key features for publishing. If you have never used bibliographic software before, you should read the introduction about generating a bibliography.

  • Temporary citation vs formatted reference: If you want Biblioscape to generate citations and a reference list, you insert temporary citations in your document and let Biblioscape scan the manuscript once you've finished writing. You can, if you wish, directly copy and paste formatted references from Biblioscape into the manuscript. But there's a catch to this: bibliographic styles differ greatly from one publication to another. If you paste formatted references, the manuscript cannot easily be converted from one bibliographic style to another, so you'll need to make these changes manually. For example, some styles require authors' names to be formatted differently when a reference appears for the second time in a manuscript.
  • Footnote citation vs in-text citation: In most cases, temporary citations are inserted as in-text citation. But for styles in the humanities, formatted references appear in footnotes or endnotes, so you need to insert temporary citations in footnotes. This is supported by Biblioscape. But you have to use an output style that starts with "*" in style name. For example, "*MLA (notes)".
  • Copy vs shoot vs drag-and-drop: With Biblioscape, you can copy or shoot both temporary citations (Ctrl+T for copy and Shift+Ctrl+T for shoot) as well as formatted references (Ctrl+B for copy and Shift+Ctrl+B for shoot). To insert temporary citations by drag-and-drop, you have to use BiblioSidekick, which you can find in the folder "...\Biblioscape X\Tools\BiblioSidekick.exe".

Copy temporary citations

Select the record (i.e. the reference) you want to cite and go to the menu command "Edit | Copy Temporary". You can also press the shortcut key Ctrl+C or Ctrl+T. Go to your word processor and press Ctrl+V to paste it. If you need to cite more than one reference, select the references while holding down the Shift or Control key. Each reference will be separated by " / ". For example: [Smith, K. 1998 #323 / Bowen, P. 2001 #211 / Wyrick, S. 1995 #466].

Copy formatted references

Sometimes you may need to insert a fully formatted reference into the text of other programs without having to format an entire document. To copy fully formatted references, please follow the steps described below:

  1. Select the reference(s) in your Biblioscape database.

  2. Go to menu “Edit | Copy Formatted” (shortcut Ctrl+B) or click on the toolbar button “Copy Formatted”.

  3. Switch to the other program and go to “Edit | Paste” or hit Ctrl+V to paste the formatted reference(s).

How the record is formatted depends on the style you selected in Biblioscape. You can use the combo box on the Biblioscape main window to change styles. To view how a record will be formatted, turn on the preview pane by going to “View | Preview Bar | Show”, and then choose “View | Preview Bar | Formatted Preview”.

Note: To insert the formatted reference into a footnote or endnote of your Word or WordPerfect document, please go to "Edit | Shoot | Shoot Bibliography to Footnote" or "Edit | Shoot | Shoot Bibliography to Endnote". Please choose your default word processor by going to "Tools | Options".

Shoot references from Biblioscape to Word or WordPerfect

Biblioscape can work with Microsoft Word or Corel WordPerfect by letting users transfer references directly into the active document without the need to copy and paste. There are several such menu commands listed under "Edit | Shoot". To let Biblioscape work with Word, please go to "Tools | Options". On the "General Display" tab, make sure "winword.exe" or its full path is listed under "Default word processor". To make Biblioscape shoot references to WordPerfect, please enter "wpwin.exe" or its full patch under the "Default word processor". Before using the "Edit | Shoot | ..." commends, please make sure the selected default word processor is running.

  • Shoot Temporary: The temporary citation of selected records will be transfered to the active document at the cursor position. Temporary citations will be converted to formatted citations along with a bibliography generated at the end of document when you format the document with Biblioscape. If you don't want to use Biblioscape to format your manuscript, you can use the Word or WordPerfect built-in endnote and footnote feature to handle your citations. The following commands can be used in such cases.

  • Shoot Formatted In-text Citation: The formatted citation of the selected record will be transfered to the active document. The command is only useful when the currently selected output style uses author-date for in-text citation. You can change the active output style by using the combo box on the main toolbar.

  • Shoot Bibliography to Footnote: A new footnote will be added in your open document at the cursor position. The bibliography of the selected record will be inserted into the footnote. The bibliography will be generated according to the active output style selected on the main toolbar. You should use an output style with author-date format, otherwise another number will be added after the footnote sequence number. You can edit an output style by going to "Tools | Styles | Output Styles...".

  • Shoot Bibliography toEndnote: A new endnote will be added in your open document at the cursor position. The bibliography of the selected record will be inserted into the endnote. The bibliography will be generated according to the active output style selected on the main toolbar. You should use an output style with author-date format, otherwise another number will be added after the endnote sequence number. You can edit an output style by going to "Tools | Styles | Output Styles...".

  • Shoot Selected Text: In Biblioscape, you can select text in fields Abstract, Notes, or Document in the reference editor. Then use one of the Shoot commands listed above. Biblioscape will shoot the selected text, then do the other things accordingly. For example, if you selected some text in the Notes field, then go to "Edit | Shoot | Shoot Temporary". Biblioscape will shoot the selected notes and then create a temporary citation next to it. If you go to "Edit | Shoot | Shoot Bibliography to Footnote", Biblioscape will shoot the selected text, then create a footnote and fill the footnote with formatted bibliography of the current record accordingly to the output style selected.

Drag-and-drop temporary citation with BiblioSidekick

BiblioSidekick uses a small window to let users browse and search bibliographic records. BiblioSidekick window can be shown as "Always OnTop", so both your word processor and bibliographic records are displayed. You can just drag the reference you want to cite to the desired position in your document, and a citation tag is automatically added. You can then generate a formatted document with Biblioscape. We see this as a further advancement compared to "Cite While You Write"; we call it "Drag While You Cite". To run BiblioSidekick, double click "...\Biblioscape X\Tools\BiblioSidekick.exe".

Tip: In BiblioSidekick, you can double click a record to open that record in a simple editor. To jump to a particular reference, key in the letters of the author's name until a desired match is found. For example if you type "sm", BiblioSidekick will jump to the record with Authors start with "Sm", such as "Smith".

Why use bibliographic software

When a researcher writes a paper for publication, he or she can not avoind citing works done by others. If there is only one rule to cite previous works, there will be probably no need for bibliographic software to exist and writing will be less time consuming. Unfornately, there are thousands of styles to cite references. Almost each journal has its own unique rules. To make things worse, a researcher publishes in more than one journal. So he or she has to remember several sets of rules regarding citing references. To make things even worse, the same paper may have to be submitted to more than one journal for publishing in case it is rejected by a journal's editors.

Bibliographic software was first born in the late 1970s and early 1980s to solve the problems mentioned above. Instead of remembering citation rules from different journals, you just insert temporary citations in your manuscript and let the bibliographic software to do the tedious work. The software will generate formatted citations and a bibliography for you.

From temporary citations to formatted documents

Write papers without using bibliographic software

I can safely say that all of us start writing papers without using bibliographic software. When you first write a research paper or thesis in college, your professor will tell you what citation style you should follow. The most popular ones are APA, Chicago, MLA, Turabian, etc. You have to remember some rules about the style you use. Since some styles have very detailed and complicated rules about how citations and references should be formatted, it can be quite time consuming. It is even worse when you have to cite the same reference later when writing another paper. Since each journal has its own style requirement, it is very likely you have to type the same reference again in another format.

Enter once and cite many times later

Bibliographic software is built to solve this problem. You enter a reference into your Biblioscape database. When your are ready to cite a reference while writing a paper, you enter a temporary citation with ID text to uniquely identify it, instead of enter the reference in a formatted form. A temporary citation looks like this: [Smith, John 2001 #341]. Once you are finished writing, you feed your manuscript into Biblioscape and specify the style you want to use like APA, MLA, etc. Biblioscape will convert temporary citations into formatted ones according to the style you picked. A reference list will also be generated at the end of manuscript according to the style's specifications. Compared to the traditional way of writing a paper, Biblioscape brings 3 main benefits.

  1. You no longer need to remember some complicated rules when cite references. Biblioscape will do the hard work for you.
  2. In case your paper needs to be submitted to another journal, you just tell Biblioscape to use another style. All citations and reference list will be regenerated instantly.
  3. You only need to enter a reference once manually or by importing. The same reference can be cited many times in different papers.

Format an RTF file with temporary citations

One of the main functions of Biblioscape is to generate citations and bibliographies for your thesis, papers, etc. Biblioscape generates bibliographies according to the rules of scientific journals. To do this, you need to insert a temporary citation tag at where a reference needs to be placed (for example: [Smith, J. 1994 #213] or [#smith 1994]).

  1. First, select the reference wanted in Biblioscape, then click on menu command “Edit | Copy Tag”. Then go to your word processor document and paste it. After finishing writing, save your document in a Rich Text Format (*.rtf) file.

  2. Switch to Biblioscape, click on menu “Tools | Format Manuscript”. Then click on the “Browse” button and select the RTF file you want to format.

  3. Select the desired Style.

  4. If you want to publish on the Web, select HTML as “File Format”, otherwise keep RTF checked.

  5. Press the “Start” button. Biblioscape will convert the tagged document into a formatted document with properly formatted citations and bibliography.

Temporary citation matches

During the formatting of a paper, Biblioscape extracts the temporary citations in the paper, and searches the database to find records that match each of the citations. If Biblioscape can't find a match, it will insert ((reference not found)) into the place of the temporary citation. If you use natural citation style as temporary citations, Biblioscape may find more than one record that matches your search text. Biblioscape then prompts you with all the matches, and lets you pick the reference wanted.

Sub-style not defined for reference type in the selected style

During formatting of a paper, Biblioscape will use the format filter that matches the reference type of your temporary citation. If such a match can't be found, Biblioscape will prompt you to use the default format filter to format the reference involved. For example, if you cited a reference of the type “Conference Proceedings”, and “Conference Proceedings” is not defined in the Style you selected, you will be presented with the option to format it as “Journal Article”.

Format and unformat an HTML file with temporary citations

Biblioscape can also format and unformat a HTML document. You should follow the same procedure as described above. Biblioscape will create a hyperlink automatically between in-text citation and its corresponding reference in bibliography section.

Journal submission and hidden text

When converting temporary citations to formatted citations and bibliography, Biblioscape adds hidden text around formatted citations and bibliography. So if needed, Biblioscape can convert the document back to unformatted document with temporary citations. Hidden text can cause problems with publishing software used by scholarly journal publishers. Biblioscape offers an option to format a manuscript without adding hidden text. In the "Tools | Options" window "Format Manuscript" tab, check off the box "Support unformat manuscript". Once your paper is accepted by a journal publisher, you may want to turn off the above option and generate a final copy without hidden text.

Tip: Biblioscape can be integrated into Microsoft Word and Corel WordPerfect. This way users can then generate a formatted document by one click inside their favorite word processor.

Note: Each time Biblioscape formats or unformats a document, it will make a copy of the file it is going to change and save it under a different name with “*backup*” added. If you experienced some problem with Biblioscape formatting, you can always go to the *backup” file to recover the original document.

Cite a reference

The following are a few important things to know about citing reference when writing papers.

Temporary Citation with Reference ID

The purpose of temporary citation is for Biblioscape to determine which record to use during the formatting of the paper. If you include reference ID in the temporary citation instead of using natural citation, you can change the author year before the pound sign “#” to any text your want. Since the reference ID is enough to determine which record to use, you can add whatever text before it. For example:

[Smith 1992 an interesting paper #23]

[may change #23]

One database Per Paper

If you have more than one Biblioscape database, make sure all the citations in each paper come from the same database. When Biblioscape formats your paper, it will only search for records in the currently opened database.

Reference ID

Biblioscape assigns a unique record ID to each reference as it is added to your database. These reference IDs could appear in your temporary citation to tell Biblioscape which record to use. You need to keep the following points in mind:

  • Reference ID is assigned sequentially to each reference that is added to a database.
  • The reference ID is never reused or reassigned within the same database. When you delete a record in database, that ID will never be used again in that database.
  • If the same reference appears in two different databases, the reference ID will be different. Therefore, if you cite temporary citations from one database and format your paper with another database, it will result in error, even if all the records cited are available in both databases.

If you have to keep two databases, we recommend you use natural citations that do not use the reference ID to identify a record. This will make your temporary citations database independent.

Deleting References in a Database

If you delete a record in your database after you have cited it in a paper, next time you format that paper, Biblioscape will not be able to find that record if the reference ID is used for temporary citation. Even when you add that record again into the database, another ID will be assigned to it. Therefore you have to update your temporary citation with the new reference ID. This is another reason we recommend using natural citation.

Working on Different Computers

If you work on a paper using more than one computer, you should always use natural citation. Then you don't need to worry about reference ID in temporary citations. Otherwise, you have to always use the same database on different computers. The best way to do this is to zip the database into a floppy disk with WinZip

Warning: Text inside temporary citations can not be re-arranged by drag-and-drop. Drag-and-drop operation inside temporary citations will make Biblioscape unable to format the document properly.

Same Author and Year in Citation

During formatting document, Different citations by the same author in the same year will be differentiated by adding “a”, “b”, “c”, etc. at the end of citation. For example, "Smith, 1997a" and "Smith, 1997b".

Generate formatted references in footnotes or endnotes

Biblioscape provides 2 ways for you to cite references in footnotes or endnotes. Which way to use really depends on the nature of your work.

Shoot Formatted References into Footnotes

If your writing doesn't need Biblioscape to reformat the citations and bibliography, you can use word processor's built-in footnote and endnote management feature. This is the easy way to cite references in footnotes or endnotes. When you are ready to cite a reference, just switch to Biblioscape. Select the reference that you want to cite, click on menu "Edit | Shoot | Shoot Bibliography to Footnote" or "Edit | Shoot | Shoot Bibliography to Endnote". Biblioscape will create a new footnote or endnote and insert the formatted reference. The way the reference is formatted is controlled by the style you selected. The formatted reference is static. Biblioscape will not change it in any way when you format the paper to create a bibliography. It also won’t change when the record itself is changed in Biblioscape.

reference in footnote - formatted citation

Insert Temporary Citations in Footnotes

You can also insert temporary citations into footnotes. When Biblioscape formats a citation in a footnote, it treats it just like any other citation it finds in the text of the document. The temporary citation in the footnote is formatted like a regular in-text citation, and the full reference is added to the bibliography. This gives you lots of flexibility by modifying a style. You can modify a style to format in-text citation any way you want including formatting it the same way bibliography is formatted.

reference in footnote - temporary citation

Insert temporary citations

Copy temporary citation

  1. When you need to cite a reference, switch to Biblioscape (Alt+Tab).

  2. Select the reference(s) in your database that you want to cite and go to “Edit | Copy Temporary (Ctrl+T)”. Or you can just press Ctrl+C.

  3. Switch to the word processor (Alt+Tab), and go to “Edit | Paste” (Ctrl+V).

Shoot temporary citation

  1. In your word processor, put the cursor at the spot where you want to cite reference(s).

  2. Switch to Biblioscape. Select the reference(s) you want to cite and go to “Edit | Shoot Citation Tag”. A temporary citation will be automatically inserted into your word processor and your word processor will become the active window. This feature works only for Microsoft Word and Corel WordPerfect.

Drag while you write

If you use Word or WordPerfect to write paper, you can run BiblioSidekick instead of Biblioscape. BiblioSidekick is a small utility that has a small window and can be set to always stay on top. When you are ready to cite a reference, just find it in BiblioSidekick, then drag-and-drop it into the desired position in the Word or WordPerfect document.

If you use Biblioscape's notes module to write, you can just drag-and-drop a reference from the right panel to the desired position in your document.

Cite while you write

If you use Word or WordPerfect, you can also start a search inside your word processor. If only one reference was found, the temporary citation will be inserted automatically. If more than one reference is found, you will be prompted to pick one. To start a search, go to the Biblioscape-related menu in Word or WordPerfect "Biblioscape | Search Reference". Enter the search text and click the OK button.

Temporary citations

A “citation” is the identifying information in the text of your paper used to find a complete reference in the bibliography. There are two types of citations. For writers in the hard science fields, citing a reference is relatively easy. Citations are inserted in-text no matter they are in the form of a number or in the form of author-date. For writers in the fields of humanities, footnotes and endnotes are used to cite references. Biblioscape supports the use of footnotes and endnotes as well. Footnotes and endnotes generation is controlled by the word processor you use. You only need to insert Biblioscape temprary citation into the footnote or endnote you created. Biblioscape will format them correctly and generate a bibliography list as well using the selected output style. In Biblioscape, output styles for use inside footnote or endnote start with "*". For example: "*Chicago 15th A (note)".

  • Footnote or endnote: A number is inserted in the text, detailed reference information is added at the bottom of the page in the case of footnote, or at the end of manuscript in the case of endnote. For example: …an enzyme that has attracted considerable interests1.
  • In-text citation: In-text citation can be in the form of a number, or in the form of author-date.
    • An in-text citation consisting of a bibliography number. For example: …an enzyme that has attracted considerable interests (1).
    • An in-text citation consisting of the author and year in parenthesis. For example: …an enzyme that has attracted considerable interests (Smith 1997).

In Biblioscape, in order to generate formatted in-text citations and bibliography, you need to insert unformatted citation called temporary citations first. So, Biblioscape formatter knows where to put the formatted citations and how to convert the raw data into formatted bibliography. There are two ways to include the temporary citations.

  • Temporary citation with Reference ID: Use a citation tag with reference ID in the form of [Author Year #Reference ID]. The reference ID is a unique number for a reference record in the database.
  • Temporary citation with text - Natural Citation: Use natural citation without a reference ID in the form of [#Identifying text]. This will make your temporary citation become independent from any database. During formatting, Biblioscape will use the text after # to identify a record. If ambiguity arises, Biblioscape will prompt you to pick the reference you want.

During the formatting of a paper, these temporary citations are converted to final citations and the corresponding bibliography are added at the end of the paper. The selected output style determines what the final citations and bibliographies will look like. In the following section, you will learn how to change the temporary citation to suppress author name or year, add prefix or suffix to final citations, etc.

Natural citation

By default, Biblioscape will use Reference ID for temporary citation when you click menu command "Edit | Temporary Citation". If you want to use natural citation, therefore remove any dependency on the Reference ID used, click menu command "Tools | Options". On the "Format Manuscript" tab, check the box Use "File As" instead of "Reference ID" for Temporary Citation. Now, when you click "Edit | Temporary Citation", the text in "File As" field will be used to identify the record instead of using Reference ID. Since Reference ID will change if you move the same record from one database to another, if you plan to use more than one database, we recommend you using natural citation instead of Reference ID.

Note: There are several ways to add temporary citations to your word processor. Within Biblioscape, you can press Ctrl+T or Ctrl+C to copy the temporary citation into Clipboard, then paste it into your word processor document. Or you can use BiblioSidekick and drag a reference from BiblioSidekick to your word processor document, the correct temporary citation will be automatically inserted.

Group multiple citations together

“multiple citation” refers to a citation that includes more than one reference.

Single citation: (Smith, 1992)

Multiple citation: (Smith, 1992; Bowen, 1997; Ishaq, 1989)

How to Create a Multiple Citation

  1. Select the references that you want to cite by holding down the Shift or Ctrl key while clicking on the desired references.
  2. Go to menu “Edit | Copy Citation Tag” or “Edit | Shoot Citation Tag”.
  3. Switch to your word processor, and go to “Edit | Paste” (Ctrl+V).

The temporary citations will appear together inside one bracket in the order they appear in database. For example:

[Smith, K. 1992 #23 / Bowen, P. J. 1997 #298 / Ishaq, K. 1989 #95].

Multiple citations must be separated by “ / ” for Biblioscape to format them correctly. After formatting by Biblioscape, the above temporary citation may look like (2, 8, 12) or (Smith, 1992; Bowen, 1997; Ishaq, 1989) depends on the style used for formatting.

Include multiple references under one citation

For certain journals, like Journal of Organic Chemistry, it allows author to include more than one reference under a single citation. For example:

(3) (a) Wheland, G. W.; Pauling, L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1935, 57, 2086-2095. (b) Lert, P. W.; Trindle, C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1971, 93, 6392-6395. (c) Thiemann, T.; Li, Y.-Q.; Mataka, S.; Tashiro, M. J. Chem. Res. 1995, 2364-2379.

(4) Mock, W. L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1970, 92, 7610-7612.

How to Create a Single Citation with Multiple References

To cite multiple references under a single citation, you follow the same steps as described above for grouping multiple citations together. After the temporary citations are inserted into the document, you need to change the separator from “ / ” into “ | ”. For example:

[Wheland, G. W. 1935 #84 | Lert, P. W. 1971 #832 | Thiemann, T. 1995 #283]

Temporary citations examples

Suppress author or year in a formatted citation

There may be times you may want to omit the author or the year in the final formatted citation. For example, you may have already mentioned author’s name in the sentence and need only the year in the final citation. In such case, you can add “^na” anywhere between open bracket “[“ and pound sign “#” in the temporary citation. For example:

  • Before format: …the theory proposed by Smith [Smith, K. 1992 ^na #23] is used to …
  • After format: …the theory proposed by Smith (1992) is used to …

Similarly, you can suppress year by using “^ny”. For example:

  • Before format: …as published in 1992 [Smith, K. 1992 ^ny #23] by another team …
  • After format: …as published in 1992 (Smith) by another team …

Note: There are two menu commands "Shoot Temp Suppress Author" and "Shoot Temp Suppress Year" that will add ^na or ^ny automatically when you shoot temporary citation. But these two menu commands are not shown by default. You can add them to the menu system by go to "Tools | Customize". On the "Commands" tab, go to the "Edit" category. You can then drag and drop any commands to the menu system.

Suppress parenthesis in a formatted citation

There are occasions in which it would be useful not to have the citation surrounded by parentheses. For example, APA style requires citations below diagrams or tables to be listed as: "Source: Smith and Bowen, 2004". In other places, the same citation should be shown as: "(Smith and Bowen, 2004)". Biblioscape allows you to use ^np inside temporary citation to indicate no parenthesis should be added around the formatted citation. You can add “^np” anywhere between open bracket “[“ and pound sign “#” in the temporary citation. For example:

  • Before format: Souces: [Smith, K. 1992 ^np #23]
  • After format: Source: Smith, 1992

Here is another example:

  • Befor format: More recent work on employed lawyers (corporate counsel; [^np Gunz, 2002 #12340]) found evidence suggesting...
  • After format: More recent work on employed lawyers (corporate counsel; Gunz and Gunz, 2002) found evidence suggesting...

Add prefix and suffix to a formatted citation

Text can be included in the temporary citation, so after formatting, it can be added at the beginning or the end of final citation. This text is not used to match the temporary citation to a record in the database. Only text between the pound sign “#” and the end bracket “]” is used to identify a record. The prefix text should be added inside parentheses immediately after the open bracket. If the left parenthesis is not added immediately after the open bracket “[“, it will be interpreted as suffix text. The following example shows how to include prefix and suffix text to be included in the final citation.

Temporary citation:      [(see also ) Smith, K. 1992 #23]
Final citation:            (See also Smith, 1992)

Temporary citation:      [Smith, K. 1992 (, pp. 45-47) #23]
Final citation:            (Smith, 1992, pp. 45-47)

In multiple citations, the prefix and suffix text will always remain with the citation they follow. The prefix and suffix text can be used in natural citation as well. For example:

Temporary citation:      [(see also ) #smith 1992 synthesis nucleoside]
Final citation:                  (See also Smith, 1992)

Cited pages

For styles that use author-date system, including cited pages inside parenthesis as shown above should be enough to handle the needs. For styles that generate citations in footnote, cited pages have to be added differently. Some output styles for footnote require you to include cited pages for cited books. These styles are mostly used in the fields of humanity and art. Many cited citations are from different sections of the same book. So adding cited pages is mandatory in such cases. Biblioscape style editor supports cited pages. You enter the cited pages in temporary citation in the form: [Sood, A. 1989 @45-47 #23]. During formatting, Biblioscape will extract the page numbers after the @ sign. The extracted page numbers will be treated as other items in an output styles. That means, you can add text before and after it, you can pick the font style to apply, and you can choose how start page and end page to be formatted. If Biblioscape finds cited pages in a temporary citation, it will format it according to the specification in the output style used. If there is no cited pages entry in the style you used, cited pages data found in temporary citation will be ignored. So, in order to use cited pages, you have to be sure that cited pages entry is included in the style you chose. 

Example of temporary citations

The following examples will show you how different modifications to a temporary citation will affect its formatted citation.


Temporary Citation

Author/Year Style

Numbered Style

Author, Year With reference ID.

[Smith, K. 1992 #23]

(Smith, 1992)


Author, Year With natural citation.

[#smith 1992 boronic acid]

(Smith, 1992)


Author, Year With reference ID and comment

[an interesting paper #23]

(Smith, 1992)


Author, Year, Prefix With reference ID

[(See also ) #Smith, K. #23]

(See also Smith, 1992)

(See also 1)

Author, Year, Suffix With search text

[ ( p. 44) #smith 1992 roman]

(Smith, 1992 p. 44)

(1 p. 44)

Suppress Year With reference ID

[^ny #23]



Suppress Author With reference ID

[^na Smith, K. 1992 #23]



Author, Suppress Year, Suffix With reference ID

[^ny Smith 1992 (, p. 44) #23]

(Smith, p. 44)

(1, p44)

Prefix, Suppress Author, Year With search text

[(See also ) ^na Smith #23]

(See also 1992)

(See also 1)


Integration with word processors

Integrate Biblioscape with Microsoft Word

You can add Biblioscape related menus into Microsoft Word. There are two ways to achieve such an integration. You only need to do one of the following two options:

  • In Microsoft Word, go to menu command "Tools | Templates and Add-Ins". Under the section "Global templates and add-ins", click the "Add" button. Go to the folder "...\Biblioscape 5\Tools\" and pick the file "" (Choose "" if you use Word 2000 or later versions).
  • Copy the Biblioscape Word template file "...\Biblioscape 5\Tools\" to the Microsoft Word “startup” directory. For example, if you use Word 7, copy file "c:\program files\biblioscape\tools\" to directory "…\Winword\Startup\". Next time you start Word, the template file will be loaded automatically. A new menu group as well as a toolbar related to Biblioscape will be added to Microsoft Word.

Note: Biblioscape adds hidden texts during formatting. The hidden text will not show in the printed document. You also have the option to not displaying it in Microsoft Word. Go to the Word menu command “Tools | Options” to bring up the option window. Activate tab “View” and uncheck the item “Hidden text”.

Tip: To insert the reference tag into word processor, you can lay BiblioSidekick next to your word processor, hold down the Alt key and drag-and-drop references into your word processor.

Integrate Biblioscape with Corel WordPerfect

Several WordPerfect macros are installed under the "...\Biblioscape 5\Tools\" folder. To run these macros, please go to menu command "Tools | Macros | Play..." in WordPerfect. Go the the "Tools" sub-folder under Biblioscape installation and run the macros.

  • wpb_format_document_rtf.wcm: Convert a document with temporary citations to formatted citations and bibliography.
  • wpb_unformat_document_rtf.wcm: Convert formatted citations and bibliography back to temporary citations. This step is required if you added more temporary citations after formatting the document with Biblioscape.
  • wpb_search_for_reference.wcm: Prompt user to enter a search string to query Biblioscape database. If only one record is found, the temporary citation of that record will be inserted at the cursor position. If more than one hits are found, all hits will be listed in Biblioscape.
  • wpb_convert_greek.wcm: All English word of Greek letters will be converted to Greek letters. For example, "alpha" will be converted to "a".

You can add often used macros to WordPerfect toolbars. First, move the cursor on top of toobar and click the right mouse button. Select "Edit" menu. Go to the "Macros" tab on the Toolbar Editor. Click the "Add Macro..." button. Select the macro you want to add. You will be prompted "Save macro with full path?", click the "No" button. The select macro will be added to the end of toolbar. You can change its position on the toolbar by drag-and-drop.

Note: Biblioscape adds hidden texts during formatting. The hidden text will not show in the printed document. You also have the option of not displaying it in WordPerfect. Go to menu command “View | Hidden Text” to uncheck it.

Tip: To insert the reference tag into word processor, you can lay BiblioSidekick next to your word processor, hold down the Alt key and drag-and-drop reference into your word processor.

Use Biblioscape with other word processors

Biblioscape can format document saved in RTF or HTML format. So any word processor that support RTF or HTML can work with Biblioscape. Just insert temporary citations as needed and save document in RTF format once finished writing. In Biblioscape, go to "Tools | Format Manuscript" to format the document and pick the desired style.

From formatted documents back to temporary citations

You can convert a Biblioscape formatted document back to a document with temporary citations. Click menu command “Tools | Unformat Manuscript”, select the document to unformat and click the “Start” button.

After a paper is formatted by Biblioscape, you can edit it any way you want; this may even include adding new temporary citations. But, in order to incorporate the new temporary citations into the bibliography, you need to unformat the document first and then format it again to generate the final draft.

Non-English characters in first author's name

If there are non-English characters in first author's name, after unformatting, those characters may disappear. For example, if the original temporary citation is [Hämäläinen, 1991 #26]. After formatting with an author-date style, the formatted citation may look like: (Hämäläinen et al., 1991). When unformatted, the temporary citation will become [Hmlinen, 1991 #26]. To get around this problem, you can go to "Tools | Options" in Biblioscape. On the "Format Manuscript" tab, check the box "Format double byte languages". Now, during unformat a document, Biblioscape will generate the author year in temporary citation directly from the record in database, instead of from the formatted document.

Note: Biblioscape can format and unformat document saved in RTF or HTML format.